In the Islamic world, the practices of marriage and divorce are based on Islamic jurisprudence. They consider marriage as a sacred vow or contract, which should only be broken through divorce as a last way out.
Practice of Marriage
In Islam, marriages should be ideally arranged by two families from both bride and the groom. However, Islam has emphasized on taking true consent from both of them, otherwise a marriage contract built through force is declared as an invalid practice/Haram act.
Also, Islamic rulings don't allow dating before marriage or even a couple-to-be married cannot meet in privacy; however, they are allowed to meet each other in the presence of their families and have a casual talk session.
In Islamic culture, Muslim men are allowed to have four wives, however the condition is that they must treat them all equally and must seek the consent of other wives before marrying a new wife. Also, a Muslim man can marry a Jew or Christian woman besides a Muslim woman. But, a Muslim woman is only allowed to marry a Muslim man.
The ceremony of marriage in Islam is customary to be held in mosque or at the house of bride. In this matrimonial ceremony, the couple gives consent in front of at least two witnesses. After that, the contract of marriage (Khutbah e Nikkah) is read. Then to register and declare this marriage contract valid, the couple signs three copies to confirm their consent. Also, in this contract the amount of mahr (dowry) is mentioned. The mahr is given by groom to bride according to Islamic jurisprudence and it can never be taken back from her.
Also the marriage ceremony in Islam is marked by readings from Holy Quran. People attend these ceremonies with lots of prayers and best wishes for the prosperous life of couple. Its mandatory for the couple to offer a wedding feast for the relatives and poor, this feast is generally known as Valima.
The Practice of Divorce and Remarriage
Although divorce is allowed in Islam as a last option but it's the most unlikable halal practice is Islam.
Though Islam has provided flexibility in the shape of divorce because sometimes problems in marriage lead to no other option, but it has also emphasized upon seeking reconciliation. If the marriage is doomed to bring unpleasantness for the whole family; couple, children and their relatives, then it can be ended through divorce.
Also, its not allowed for a man to divorce her pregnant wife. He must change his heart or wait until the delivery. In Islam, one cannot divorce right away in the mist of emotions. After first declaration of divorce, the couple is given time of three months to seek reconciliation. This time period for reconciliation is called Iddah. If it doesn't work for them then they can move on with divorce.
In case they reconcile, its mandatory for them to refresh their marriage vows (tajdeed e nikkah). But this kind of reconciliation is allowed for only two times and if they seek divorce for the third time, its considered final. However, even after that they can remarry each other but for that, first the woman must marry another man, seek divorce and get married to her ex-husband.
A woman is also allowed to seek divorce from her husband. However, the cause should be valid, like mistreatment from her husband or disregard for her rights.